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Abkhaz (Abzhywa)

Phylum: Northwest Caucasian

Genus: Abkhaz-Abaza

Lat/lon: 42.8, 41.5

ISO code: abk

Consonants

Basic short series

bilabiallabio-velarlabio-dentalalveolarpostalveolarretroflexpalatalvelaruvularpharyngeal
stoppʰ, b, pʼtʰ, d, tʼkʰ, g, kʼ
trillr
fricativef, v, fʼs, zʃ, ʒʂ, ʐʁ, χħ
affricatetsʰ, dz, tsʼtʃʰ, dʒ, tʃʼʈʂʰ, ɖʐ, ʈʂʼ
nasalmn
approximantwj
lateral approximantl

Short labialised series

alveolarpostalveolarhissing-hushingvelaruvularpharyngeal
stoptʷʰ, dʷ, tʷʼkʷʰ, gʷ, kʷʼqʷʼ
fricativeʃʷ, ʒʷʁʷ, χʷħʷ
affricatetŝʷʰ, dẑʷ, tŝ ʷʼ

Short palatalised series

velaruvular
stopkʲʰ, gʲ, kʲʼqʲʼ
fricativeʁʲ, χʲ

Short pharyngealised series

labio-palatal
approximantɥˤ

Vowels

Basic short series

central
closeɨ
open

Long series

central
openäː

Source: Бгажба, Х.С. 1964. Бзыбский диалект абхазского языка. Тбилиси: Издательство Академии наук Грузинской ССР.

Comments: f’/ is only found in one word meaning 'narrow'. /ʔ/ is also found in only one word, but the latter means 'no' and is thus hardly phonemic.

Contributed by: André Nikulin (andre.n.guzman@gmail.com)